Stain Prevention and Whitening
There are several ways by which teeth may appear stained or discolored. Extrinsic surface staining of the teeth is mostly caused by tea, coffee, red wine and tobacco. Teeth may also be discolored or appear to be darker due to intrinsic staining or dental erosion. In the case of dental erosion, this is due to the dentin shining through enamel that has been eroded and become thinner. Along with patient demand for more aesthetic dental treatments, there is also demand for dentifrices with stain prevention and whitening benefits.
Removing and Preventing Extrinsic Stain
Avoiding or reducing intake of tea, coffee, red wine and tobacco helps prevent extrinsic stains. Extrinsic stain can be removed by dentifrice abrasives. Baking soda is a mild abrasive shown to gently remove and lift extrinsic stains. Peroxide contained in dentifrices also helps lift stains off the surfaces of the teeth (see research study below).
ARM & HAMMER™ STAIN DEFENSE™ toothpastes such as Advance White™ Extreme Whitening and Complete Care™ Plus Whitening contain both baking soda and hydrogen peroxide. In combination, these ingredients remove stains and whiten teeth. The STAIN DEFENSE™ technology also helps prevent new stains from setting.
RDA testing has demonstrated that ARM & HAMMER™ Advance White™ Extreme Whitening Toothpaste provides effective stain removal and is significantly less abrasive to dentine than several leading whitening toothpastes*, data below.
*Source: Nielsen data, Latest 52 Weeks, MAR2313, Total U.S. AOC, ranking based on Dollars.
For patients looking for faster stain removal and extrinsic whitening, ARM & HAMMER™ Whitening Booster contains three times more hydrogen peroxide than a leading tooth whitening strip. By applying the booster on top of the dentifrice, whitening can occur in one week.
Ghassemi A, Hooper W, Vorwerk L, Domke T, DeSciscio P, Nathoo S. Effectiveness of a new dentifrice with baking soda and peroxide in removing extrinsic stain and whitening teeth. J Clin Dent 2012;23(3):86-91.
The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a baking soda and peroxide dentifrice in reducing extrinsic stains and whitening teeth compared to a regular fluoride dentifrice containing silica as the abrasive. 146 subjects were provided with a soft toothbrush and randomly either the baking soda and peroxide dentifrice or the fluoride dentifrice containing silica, and brushed twice daily with the dentifrice and a soft toothbrush. Stain measurements were taken at baseline, week four and week six using a Vita shade guide and the Modified Lobene Stain Index. 135 subjects (of 146) completed the study. Statistically significant reductions in stains were observed at week four (41.6%) and week six (61.6%) for only the baking soda and peroxide dentifrice (p<0.0001) and further reductions were observed with use for another two weeks (p<0.0001).
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